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转载:CreateFile函数详解  

2010-02-02 09:41:07|  分类: C++(VC)编程 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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CreateFile函数详解(详细解释…)

CreateFile

The CreateFile function creates or opens the following objects and returns a handle that can be used to access

the object:

files

pipes

mailslots

communications resources

disk devices(Windows NT only)

consoles

directories(open only)

CreateFile 函数创建或打开下列对象,并返回一个可以用来访问这些对象的句柄。

文件

pipes

邮槽

通信资源

磁盘驱动器(仅适用于 windowsNT )

控制台

文件夹(仅用于打开)

HANDLE CreateFile(

LPCTSTR lpFileName,    // 指向文件名的指针

DWORD dwDesiredAccess,    // 访问模式(写 / 读)

DWORD dwShareMode,    // 共享模式

LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpSecurityAttributes, // 指向安全属性的指针

DWORD dwCreationDisposition,   // 如何创建

DWORD dwFlagsAndAttributes,   // 文件属性

HANDLE hTemplateFile    // 用于复制文件句柄

);

Parametes

参数列表

lpFileName

String ,要打开的文件的名字. 实际上应该使用PChar(PWideChar)类型.

dwDesiredAccess

Long ,如果为 GENERIC_READ 表示允许对设备进行读访问;如果为 GENERIC_WRITE 表示允许对设备进行写访问(可组合使用);如果为零,表示只允许获取与一个设备有关的信息.

dwShareMode

Long ,零表示不共享; FILE_SHARE_READ 和 / 或 FILE_SHARE_WRITE 表示允许对文件进行共享访问.

lpSecurityAttributes

SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES ,指向一个 SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES 结构的指针,定义了文件的安全特性(如果操作系统支持的话).

dwCreationDisposition

Long ,下述常数之一:

CREATE_NEW

创建文件;如文件存在则会出错

CREATE_ALWAYS

创建文件,会改写前一个文件

OPEN_EXISTING

文件必须已经存在。由设备提出要求

OPEN_ALWAYS

如文件不存在则创建它

TRUNCATE_EXISTING

讲现有文件缩短为零长度

dwFlagsAndAttributes

Long ,一个或多个下述常数

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE

标记归档属性

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED

将文件标记为已压缩,或者标记为文件在目录中的默认压缩方式

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL

默认属性

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN

隐藏文件或目录

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY

文件为只读

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM

文件为系统文件

FILE_FLAG_WRITE_THROUGH

操作系统不得推迟对文件的写操作

FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED

允许对文件进行重叠操作

FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING

禁止对文件进行缓冲处理。文件只能写入磁盘卷的扇区块

FILE_FLAG_RANDOM_ACCESS

针对随机访问对文件缓冲进行优化

FILE_FLAG_SEQUENTIAL_SCAN

针对连续访问对文件缓冲进行优化

FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE

关闭了上一次打开的句柄后,将文件删除。特别适合临时文件

也可在 Windows NT 下组合使用下述常数标记:

SECURITY_ANONYMOUS , SECURITY_IDENTIFICATION , SECURITY_IMPERSONATION ,SECURITY_DELEGATION , SECURITY_CONTEXT_TRACKING , SECURITY_EFFECTIVE_ONLY

hTemplateFile

Long ,如果不为零,则指定一个文件句柄。新文件将从这个文件中复制扩展属性.

返回值

如执行成功,则返回文件句柄。 INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE 表示出错,会设置 GetLastError 。即使函数成功,但若文件存在,且指定了 CREATE_ALWAYS 或 OPEN_ALWAYS , GetLastError 也会设为 ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS.

以下是各个参数的详细解释.

lpFileName

Pointer to a null-terminated string that specifies the name of the object(file, pipe, mailslot,

communications resource, disk device, console, or directory) to create or open.

指向一个空结尾字符串。该参数指定了用于创建或打开句柄的对象。

if *lpFileName is a path, there is a default string size limit of MAX_PATH characters, This limit is

related to how the CreateFile function parses paths.

如果 lpFileName 的对象是一个路径,则有一个最大字符数的限制。不能超过常量 (MAX_PATH). 这个限制指示了

CreateFile 函数如何解析路径 .

dwDesiredAccess

Specifies the type of access to the object. An application can obtain read access, write access,

read-write access, or device query access, This parameter can be any combination of the following

values

指定对象的访问方式 , 程序可以获得读访问权 , 写访问权 , 读写访问权或者是询问设备 (”device query”) 访问权 .

这个参数可以是下列值的任意组合

Value( 值 ) Meaning( 含义 )

0 Specifies device query access to the object. An application can query device

attributes without accessing the device.

指定询问访问权 . 程序可以在不直接访问设备的情况下查询设备的属性 .

GENERIC_READ Specifies read access to the object, Data can be read from the file and the

file pointer can be moved. Combine with GENERIC_WRITE for read-write access.

指定读访问权 . 可以从文件中读取数据 , 并且移动文件指针 . 可以和 GENERIC_WRITE 组合

成为 ” 读写访问权 “.

GENERIC_WRITE specifies write access to the object. Data can be written to the file and the

file pointer can be moved. Combine with GENERIC_READ fro read-write access

指定写访问权 . 可以从文件中写入数据 , 并且移动文件指针 . 可以和 GENERIC_READ 组合

成为 ” 读写访问权 “.

dwShareMode

Set of bit flags that specifies how the object can be shared, If dwShareMode is 0, the object cannot

be shared. Subsequent open operations on the object will fail, until the handle is closed.

设置位标志指明对象如休共享 . 如果参数是 0, 对象不能够共享 . 后续的打开对象的操作将会失败 , 直到该对象的句

柄关闭 .

To share the object, use a combination of one or more of the following values:

使用一个或多个下列值的组合来共享一个对象 .

Value( 值 ) Meaning( 含义 )

FILE_SHARE_DELETE WindowsNT: Subsequent open operations on the object will succeed only if

delete access is requested.

WINDOWS NT: 后续的仅仅请求删除访问权的打开操作将会成功 .

FILE_SHARE_READ Subsequent open operations on the object will successd only if read access

is requested.

后续的仅仅请求读访问权的打开操作将会成功 .

FILE_SHARE_WRITE Subsequent open operations on the object will succeed only if write access

is requested.

后续的仅仅请求写访问权的打开操作将会成功 .

lpSecurityAttributes

pointer to a SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES structure that determines whether the returned handle can be

inherited by child processes, if lpSecurityAttributes is NULL, the handle cannot be inherited.

指向一个 SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES 结构的指针用于确定如何在子进程中继承这个句柄 . 如果这个参数是 NULL,

则该句柄不可继承 .

dwCreationDisposition

Specifies which action to take on files that exist, and which action to take when files do not exist.

For more information about this parameter, see the remarks section. This parameter must be one of the

following values

指定当文件存在或者不存在时如何动作。关于这个参数更多的信息,参考批注部分。这个参数必须是一个或多个

下列值。

VALUE( 值 ) Neaning( 含义 )

CREATE_NEW Creates a new file. The function fails if the specified file already exists

创建一个新文件 . 如果该文件已经存在函数则会失败 .

CREATE_ALWAYS Creates a new file. If the file exsts, the function overwrites the file and

clears the existing attributes.

创建一个新文件 . 如果该文件已经存在 , 函数将覆盖已存在的文件并清除已存在的文件属性

OPEN_EXISTING Opens the file. The function fails if the file does not exist.

See the Remarks section for a discussion of why you should use the

OPEN_EXISTING flag if you are using the CreateFile function for devices,

including the console.

打开一个文件 , 如果文件不存在函数将会失败 .

如查你使用 CreateFile 函数为设备装载控制台 . 请查看批注中的 ” 为什么使用

OPEN_EXISTING 标志 ” 的部分 .

OPEN_ALWAYS Opens the file, if it exsts. If the file does not exist, the function creates

the file as if dwCreationDisposition were CREATE_NEW.

如果文件存在 , 打开文件 . 如果文件不存在 , 并且参数中有 CREATE_NEW 标志 , 则创建文件 .

TRUNCATE_EXISTING Opens the file. Once opened, the file is truncated so that its size is zero

bytes The calling process must open the file with at least GENERIC_WRITE access.

The function fails if the file does not exist.

打开一个文件 , 每次打开 , 文件将被截至 0 字节 . 调用进程必须用 GENERIC_WRITE 访问模式打

开文件 . 如果文件不存在则函数就会失败 .

dwFlagsAndatributes

Specifies the file attributes and flags for the file.

为文件指定属性和标志位

Any combination of the following attributes is acceptable for the dwFlagsAndAttributes parameter,

except all other file attributes override FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL.

该参数可以接收下列属性的任意组合 . 除非其它所有的文件属性忽略 FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL.

Attribute( 属性 ) Meaning( 标志 )

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE The ifle should be archived. Application use this attribute to mark

files for backup or removal.

文件将被存档 , 程序使用此属性来标志文件去备份或移除

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN The file is hidden. It is not to be included in an ordinary directory

listing.

文件被隐藏 , 它不会在一般文件夹列表中被装载 .

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL The file has no other attributes set. This attribute is valid only if

used alone

文件没有被设置任何属性 .

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE The data of the file is not immediately available. Indicates that the

file data has been physically moved to offline storage.

文件的数据没有被立即用到。指出正在脱机使用该文件。

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY The file is read only.Applications can read the file but cannot write

to it or delete it

这个文件只可读取 . 程序可以读文件 , 但不可以在上面写入内容 , 也不可删除 .

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM The file is part of or is used exclusively by the operation system.

文件是系统的一部分 , 或是系统专用的 .

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_TEMPORARY The file is being used for temporary storage. File systems attempt

to keep all of the data in memory for quicker access rather than

flushing the data back to mass storage. A temporary file should be

deleted by the application as soon as it is no longer needed.

文件被使用后,文件系统将努力为(文件的)所有数据的迅迅访问保持一块

内存。临时文件应当在程序不用时及时删除。

Any combination of the following flags is acceptable for the dwFlagsAndAttributes parameter.

dwFlagAndAttributes 可以接受下列标志的任意组合。

FLAG (标志) Meaning( 含义 )

FILE_FLAG_WRITE_THROUGH Instructs the system to write through any intermediate cache and go

directly to disk. The system can still cache write operations, but

cannot lazily flush them.

指示系统通过快速缓存直接写入磁盘,

FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED Instructs the system to initialize the object, so that operations that

take a significant amount of time to process return ERROR_IO_PENDING.

When the operation is finished, the specified event is set to the

signaled state.

指示系统初始化对象 , 此操作将对进程设置一个引用计数并返回 ERROR_IO_PENDING.

处理完成后 , 指定对象将被设置为信号状态 .

When you specify FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED, the file read and write functions

must specify an OVERLAPPED structure. That is, when FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED

is specified, an application must perform overlapped parameter(pointing

to an OVERLAPPED structure)to the file read and write functions.

This flag also enables more than one operation to be performed

simultaneously with the handle(a simultaneous read and write operation,

for example).

当你指定 FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED 时 , 读写文件的函数必须指定一个 OVERLAPPED 结构 .

并且 . 当 FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED 被指定 , 程序必须执行重叠参数 ( 指向 OVERLAPPED

结构 ) 去进行文件的读写 .

这个标志也可以有超过一个操作去执行 .

FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING Instructs the system to open the file with no intermediate buffering or

caching.When combined with FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED, the flag gives maximum

asynchronous performance, because the I/O does not rely on the synchronous

operations of the memory manager. However, some I/O operations will take

longer, because data is not being held in the cache.

指示系统不使用快速缓冲区或缓存,当和 FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED 组合 , 该标志给出最

大的异步操作量 , 因为 I/O 不依赖内存管理器的异步操作 . 然而 , 一些 I/O 操作将会运行

得长一些 , 因为数据没有控制在缓存中 .

An application must meet certain requirements when working with files

opened with FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING:

当使用 FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING 打开文件进行工作时 , 程序必须达到下列要求 :

File access must begin at byte offsets within the file that are

integer multiples of the volume’s sector size.

文件的存取开头的字节偏移量必须是扇区尺寸的整倍数 .

File access must be for numbers of bytes that are integer

multiples of the volume’s sector size. For example, if the sector

size is 512 bytes, an application can request reads and writes of

512, 1024, or 2048 bytes, but not of 335, 981, or 7171bytes.

文件存取的字节数必须是扇区尺寸的整倍数 . 例如 , 如果扇区尺寸是 512 字节

程序就可以读或者写 512,1024 或者 2048 字节 , 但不能够是 335,981 或者 7171

字节 .

buffer addresses for read and write operations must be sector

aligned(aligned on addresses in memory that are integer multiples

of the volume’s sector size).

进行读和写操作的地址必须在扇区的对齐位置 , 在内存中对齐的地址是扇区

尺寸的整倍数 .

One way to align buffers on integer multiples of the volume sector size is

to use VirtualAlloc to allocate the buffers, It allocates memory that is

aligned on addresses that are integer multiples of the operating system’s

memory page size. Because both memory page and volume sector sizes are

powers of 2, this memory is also aligned on addresses that are integer

multiples of a volume’s sector size.

一个将缓冲区与扇区尺寸对齐的途径是使用 VirtualAlloc 函数 . 它分配与操作系统

内存页大小的整倍数对齐的内存地址 . 因为内存页尺寸和扇区尺寸 –2 都是它们的幂 .

这块内存在地址中同样与扇区尺寸大小的整倍数对齐 .

An application can determine a volume’s sector size by calling the

GetDiskFreeSpace function

程序可以通过调用 GetDiskFreeSpace 来确定扇区的尺寸 .

FILE_FLAG_RANDOM_ACCESS

Indicates that the file is accessed randomly. The system can use this as

a hint to optimize file caching.

指定文件是随机访问 , 这个标志可以使系统优化文件的缓冲 .

FILE_FLAG_SEQUENTIAL_SCAN

Indicates that the file is to be accessed sequentially from beginning to

end. The system can use this as a hint to optimize file caching. If an

application moves the file pointer for random access, optimum caching may

not occur; however, correct operation is still guaranteed.

指定文件将从头到尾连续地访问 . 这个标志可以提示系统优化文件缓冲 . 如果程序在

随机访问文件中移动文件指针 , 优化可能不会发生 ; 然而 , 正确的操作仍然可以得到保

Specifying this flag can increase performance for applications that read

large files using sequential access, performance gains can be even more

noticeable for applications that read large files mostly sequentially,

but occasionally skip over small ranges of bytes.

指定这个标志可以提高程序以顺序访问模式读取大文件的性能 , 性能的提高在许多

程序读取一些大的顺序文件时是异常明显的 . 但是可能会有小范围的字节遗漏 .

FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE Indicates that the operating system is to delete the file immediately

after all of its handles have been closed, not just the handle for which

you specified FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE.

指示系统在文件所有打开的句柄关闭后立即删除文件 . 不只有你可以指定 FILE_FLAG_DELETE_ON_CLOSE

Subsequent open requests for the file will fail, unless FILE_SHARE_DELETE

is used.

如果没有使用 FILE_SHARE_DELETE, 后续的打开文件的请求将会失败 .

FILE_FLAG_BACKUP_SEMANTICS WINDOWS NT:Indicates that the file is being opened or created for a backup

or restore operation.The system ensures that the calling process overrides

file security checks, provided it has the necessary privileges. The

relevant privileges are SE_BACKUP_NAME and SE_RESTORE_NAME.

WINDOWS NT: 指示系统为文件的打开或创建执行一个备份或恢复操作 . 系统保证调

用进程忽略文件的安全选项 , 倘若它必须有一个特权 . 则相关的特权则是 SE_BACKUP_NAME

和 SE_RESTORE_NAME.

You can also set this flag to obtain a handle to a directory. A directory

handle can be passed to some Win32 functions in place of a file handle.

你也可以使用这个标志获得一个文件夹的句柄,一个文件夹句柄能够象一个文件句柄

一样传给某些 Win32 函数。

FILE_FLAG_POSIX_SEMANTICS Indicates that the file is to be accessed according to POSIX rules. This

includes allowing multiple files with names, differing only in case, for file

systems that support such naming. Use care when using this option because

files created with this flag may not be accessible by applications written

for MS-DOS or 16-bit Windows.

指明文件符合 POSIX 标准 . 这是在 MS-DOS 与 16 位 Windows 下的标准 .

FILE_FLAG_OPEN_REPARSE_POINT Specifying this flag inhibits the reparse behavior of NTFS reparse points.

When the file is opened, a file handle is returned, whether the filter that

controls the reparse point is operational or not. This flag cannot be used

with the CREATE_ALWAYS flag.

指定这个标志制约 NTFS 分区指针 . 该标志不能够和 CREAT_ALWAYS 一起使用 .

FILE_FLAG_OPEN_NO_RECALL Indicates that the file data is requested,but it should continue to reside in

remote storage. It should not be transported back to local storage. This flag

is intended for use by remote storage systems or the Hierarchical Storage

Management system.

指明需要文件数据 , 但是将继续从远程存储器中接收 . 它不会将数据存放在本地存储器中 .

这个标志由远程存储系统或等级存储管理器系统使用 .

hTemplateFile

Specifies a handle with GENERIC_READ access to a template file. The template file supplies file attributes and

extended attributes for the file being created.

为 GENERIC_READ 访问的模式指定一个句柄到模板文件 . 模板文件在文件开始创建后提供文件属性和扩展属性 .

Return Values

返回值

If the function succeeds, the return value is an open handle to the specified file. If the specified file exists before

the function call and dwCreation is CREATE_ALWAYS or OPEN_ALWAYS, a call to GetLastError returns ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS

(even though the function has succeeded). If the file does not exist before the call, GetLastError returns zero.

如果函数成功 , 返回一个打开的指定文件的句柄 . 如果指定文件在函数调用前已经存在并且 dwCreation 参数是 CREATE_ALWAYS 或者

OPEN_ALWAYS, 调用 GetLastError 就会返回 ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS( 表示函数成功 ). 如果函数文件在调用前不存在则会返回 0.

If the function fails, the return value is INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE.To get extended error information, call GetLastError.

如果函数失败 , 返会值会是 INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE. 更多的错误信息可以调用 GetLastError 来获得 .

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